Based on the Teach and Shortliffe study, 52 We expected a multidimensional structure for the feature demand scale. In the special case of the item set addressing computer knowledge, subsets of the items were hypothesized to fall into three categories of difficulty. Respondents indicated that they devoted, on average, Items with a factor loading less than. Effect of computing systems on health manpower needs Melhorn et al. A second questionnaire was mailed to all subjects four to five weeks after the initial mailing, with a response requested only from those who had previously not responded. To our knowledge, psychometric analysis of physician knowledge of computers has not been previously reported. Content validity was addressed through the instrument development process, both by basing the items on the prior Teach and Shortliffe instrument 52 and by collegial development of the new items using a panel experienced in medical informatics. The data obtained by questionnaire of motivation. Some respondents had multiple missing values within an item set. The final instrument, which has been briefly described elsewhere, 56 , 57 consists of 89 items in four sections: The new instrument was created by adding and deleting items from the original. Higher mean scores for items seen as less difficult would be evidence of the construct validity of this scale.
To what extent does each scale appear to be a valid measure of the associated attribute? We computed the reliability, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, of the resulting item set for each attribute. Each item listed a specific task undertaken by an academic physician along with five options for the respondent to indicate the relative frequency with which he or she personally uses a computer for this task. The group comprised two of this manuscript's coauthors WMD and CPF as well as four persons whose contributions are cited in the acknowledgments. This subsection is not viewed as measuring an attribute of the respondent and is not further considered here. Which items appear not to address the attribute and thus not to belong in the item set? Construct validity was also explored by examination of the correlations among the attributes themselves and by examination of correlations between the attributes and other characteristics of the respondents as measured by selected other items of the survey. In addition, we designed the new instrument to include measures of computer use, not included in most prior studies, and to specifically address the roles and activities of physicians. Following this, we include a section addressing validity of all attributes. Contains eight tables and eight references. The first listed 18 potential functions of computers in medicine and asked the respondent to indicate the six considered highest priority and the six considered lowest priority for future system development. The reliability of the resulting seven-item scale was. The new instrument was created by adding and deleting items from the original. Using a five-point reponse scale, the respondent indicated the extent to which each effect is considered beneficial or detrimental. Construct validity was established in part by the results of the factor analysis. One prior study 49 measured enduser computer sophistication without specification of parameters describing how accurate or precise measurements using these methods would be. Results In this section we first report some demographic characteristics and other characteristics of the respondents. Some respondents had multiple missing values within an item set. Respondents indicated that they devoted, on average, Study Goals and Questions Because physicians' attitudes and other attributes appear to be important in determining the use of computers and because existing instruments may be less than satisfactory for measuring these attributes, we sought to develop an instrument specifically designed for physicians that measures with well-defined psychometric properties four important attributes regarding computers in medical care. Data from junior high school students in a Texas public school were used to validate the construct and criterion-related validity of the CAQ. We hypothesized that the use, knowledge, and optimism attributes would be unidimensional. These include for what purposes health professionals actually use computers and how much they known about the underlying technology. A confirmatory factor analysis revalidated the psychological constructs carried over the instrument's predecessor, the Young Children's Computer Inventory Questionnaire, and high internal consistency reliability figures further reconfirmed the stability of the newer subscales that were added for middle school students. This paper reports the findings of a validation study of the CAQ.
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