Low subjective response to alcohol's sedative and aversive effects, particularly during early drinking episodes, may facilitate heavy drinking Schuckit, By measuring heart rate at baseline and then after alcohol consumption, researchers have found that, like subjective effects, effects on HR differ in magnitude at different points along the BAC curve Conrod et al. IOP treatment was provided in groups that met three times per week, 3 hours per session, for 6—8 weeks. Though the POMS measures some mood states probably irrelevant to stimulation and sedation e. The two major theories of how response to alcohol predicts risk for alcoholism both postulate that individuals at high risk for alcohol use disorders have a reduced sedative response to alcohol compared to individuals not at high risk. During early drinking experiences, females reported a greater degree of sedative effect compared with males; there was no gender difference in degree of stimulant effect reported during early drinking experiences. What are the brain mechanisms that allow alcohol to act as both a stimulant and a sedative? Each assessment lasted 2—3 hours and collected data on the adolescent's substance-use history, self-reported subjective effects of alcohol, and DSM-IV substance-use disorders. In support of the validity of SRE FIRST5, the measure correlated with adults' reports of subjective effects and physiological response during laboratory alcohol challenge e. Youth completed a urine drug screen at each assessment, and discrepancies between self-report and test results were discussed with the adolescent to ensure high data quality. Many people initially drink primarily to experience R. The following are most commonly used. In general, stimulatory effects are thought to be more rewarding than sedative effects, but this may not be true for anxiolytic effects which seem more closely related to sedation than stimulation.
However, at 1-year follow-up, only early sedative effects predicted 1-year outcomes. Research on low subjective response to alcohol has focused primarily on alcohol's sedative effects during early drinking experiences. This study examined subjective response to both stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol during initial drinking experiences as predictors of treated adolescents' severity of alcohol involvement before treatment and over 1-year follow-up. In general, stimulant effects are considered more positive than sedative effects. Although subjective sedative and stimulatory effects can be measured, it is not entirely clear if all motor, cognitive and behavioral effects can be unambiguously assigned to either one or the other category. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Studies have consistently found that individuals who consume alcohol administer shocks of higher intensity and duration than those who consume a placebo or non-alcoholic beverage Bushman and Cooper ; Kelly and Cherek ; Taylor and Chermack Two possible mechanisms, related to the biphasic effects of alcohol, have been proposed to explain the association between initial sensitivity to alcohol effects and alcohol involvement. Research on alcohol-induced subjective effects generally involves having subjects consume alcohol and then R. The position of the mark is converted to a scaled score King et al. The alcohol-use questionnaire given at baseline and follow-up collected data on past-year frequency of alcohol use, frequency of drinking five or more drinks in a day frequency codes for questionnaire items were as follows: Both early subjective stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol predicted the usual number of drinks needed to become intoxicated and the maximum drinking quantity per day before treatment. Some sedative effects, like reduced anxiety, are also pleasant, but others, like motor impairment, are widely considered unpleasant Morean and Corbin Several such ques- tionnaires exist, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Although subjective sedative and stimulatory effects can be measured, it is not entirely clear if all motor, cognitive and behavioral effects can be unambiguously assigned to either one or the other category. Individual response to alcohol can also change over time; studies have shown that humans and experimental animals can become more or less sensitive to stimulant drugs like cocaine and amphetamine over multiple periods of con- sumption Robinson and Berridge ; Strakowski et al. Specifically, the SRE's four, largely sedative, alcohol effects were expanded to cover a total of seven stimulant and sedative alcohol effects. As BACs decline, stimulation quickly wanes. In the year before treatment, the average frequency of alcohol use was once per week, and for marijuana, it was three to four times per week. IOP treatment was provided in groups that met three times per week, 3 hours per session, for 6—8 weeks. Increased heart rate and aggression seem strongly associated with stimulation, but motor slowing and cognitive impairment can also show a similar time course to stimulation, making their relation to sedation problematic. Indeed, alcohol-induced aggression corre- lates with subjective stimulation Giancola et al. In a cross-sectional study of COGA to year-old offspring, FIRST5 low response mediated the association between family history of alcoholism and alcohol involvement Schuckit et al. To investigate associations between early response to both stimulant and sedative alcohol effects in relation to adolescent alcohol involvement, the SRE was expanded in this study to include stimulant effects, as well as to include items querying the degree of effect obtained during specific drinking periods e. For each drinking period, the SEAQ obtained information on the typical amount consumed per occasion. The two major theories of how response to alcohol predicts risk for alcoholism both postulate that individuals at high risk for alcohol use disorders have a reduced sedative response to alcohol compared to individuals not at high risk. After more gradual consumption of alcohol, however, HR can remain elevated during the descending limb Conrod et al.
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