A cut-off of 12, 11 and 13 for Zulu, Afrikaans and Xhosa, respectively, generated the most balanced sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value Zulu: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the CES-D in three major South African languages: The sample size of validation studies included in a recent meta-analysis of the PHQ-9 [ 30 ] usually ranged from to Data were collected electronically, with the use of mobile devices. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale CES-D was developed to diagnose of depression, to identify the depressive symptoms and risk of having disorder of a person . Furthermore, lack of social support and poor sleep hygiene were found to be significantly associated with depression at undergraduate students . Households were still included in the three count method when members were not at home or refused to participate. Several studies from China and Vietnam have demonstrated that the four-factor model of the CES-D greatly fitted  , . Procedure Xhosa and Afrikaans speaking participants were recruited from the City of Cape Town metro district and Zulu speaking participants from the Ethekwini district. While a few studies from the first waves of NIDS used the CES-D as a longitudinal measure of depression severity [ 18 — 20 ], most have used a cut-off of 10 to classify participants at high risk of depression, as suggested by Andresen [ 21 — 24 ]. Participants who were diagnosed with depression were given a brochure on depression, and a list of local non-governmental organisations and toll-free numbers they could contact for counselling. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Given that adolescent's depression is associated with the above mentioned short- and long-term consequences, there is an urgent need to understand the status of depression and its associated factors among adolescence. Fieldworkers first approached the households to determine that the language criterion was met. Published online Jan 9. Patient Health Questionnaire — 9 item PHQ-9 The PHQ-9 is a 9-item screening measure for depression, where participants are asked to rate how often they were bothered by specific symptoms over the last two weeks [ 25 ]. The interview was administered by the same fieldworkers involved in the recruitment process.
This process was repeated until six participants per SAL were reached. Major depression was determined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Consent and assent forms were translated in all three languages and completed by all participants who agreed to participate. Abstract Objectives The aims of this paper were to confirm the validity and reliability of a brief CES-D measure for depression and identify the associated factors with the depression among adolescents and youth in Chi Linh, Hai Duong province, Vietnam. The disease is closely related to a range of behaviours such as the suicide attempt and suicidal behaviour among different population groups regardless of their sex and age . Scoring is reversed for items 5 and 8, which are positive affect statements. The proposed sample therefore falls within the range of validation studies considered methodologically strong. The SAL is the lowest level of geographic unit for which Census data is publically available, and is a manageable size in terms of population and land area. Household economic measures included type of dwelling, number of household members, as well as access to electricity, water and sanitation. A missed appointment was considered as a refusal. All instruments were translated and back-translated to English. Only SALs classified as residential were included in the sampling base. It includes three items on depressed affect, five items on somatic symptoms, and two on positive affect. For instance, the CES-D was helpful in identifying the depressive symptoms in rural Chinese residents who attempted to have suicidal behaviours and shown good construct validity and internal consistency . Did you attempt suicide or plan a suicide? The CES-D has shown good validity and reliability for depression evaluation in the different population groups  ,  , . In this study, we want to confirm the validity and reliability of this depression scale and identify the associated predictors with depression among the adolescents in Chi Linh town, Hai Duong province, Vietnam. Minors completed the interview in the presence of the consenting caregiver. This was defined as relatives or non-relatives who lived under the same roof or within the same compound, shared resources, and slept in the house for at least four nights a week. Adolescents' depression was assessed in and The final sample included in the analysis was therefore for the Zulu sample, in the coloured Afrikaans sample and in the Xhosa sample. A study has recently found that parents' emotional connectedness was significantly associated with depression in adolescents . Given that adolescent's depression is associated with the above mentioned short- and long-term consequences, there is an urgent need to understand the status of depression and its associated factors among adolescence. Total scores can range from 0 to Methods Design This validation study investigated the internal consistency, concurrent, construct and criterion validity of the CES-D among Zulu, Xhosa and Afrikaans-speaking populations. Fieldworkers first approached the households to determine that the language criterion was met.
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