His reasons are these: A call to national repentance in the face of God's judgment 2: Mentions in the first half of the book to the day of the Lord were also ascribed to this continuator. On the other hand, in iii. Details of exact ascriptions differed between scholars. To urge Judah to repent of their sins C. Finally, the mention of the Egyptians points to the last years of Josiah or else those immediately following , referring to Josiah's campaign against the Egyptians. The authenticity of 3: Only Judah is expressly mentioned, whereas the idea seems to be to connote both Judah and Israel thus ch. Early Preexilic Ninth Century, B. Chisholm argues that 2: If the latter is the case, and Judah did not repent, there would be no problem with the historical fall of Jerusalem which followed.
The authenticity of 3: Postexilic Sixth to Fourth Century, B. On the other hand, iv. On the other hand, the appointment of a fast on the occasion of exceptional afflictions is found in the narratives of the Book of Kings I Kings xxi. In the same way ii. Evil kings like those in the Northern kingdom of Israel get little to none. Nabopolassar defeated the Assyrians outside of Babylon 3. The difficulty arises that these descriptions apply even less to a post-exilic period than to the time of King Joash see below. Go, and proclaim these words toward the north, and say: He starts out with the fact that the general assumptions in the two parts are wholly different: The three best arguments for late authorship that I'm aware of are as follows: He would have begun his prophetic ministry five years later. Reasons for Later Composition. Theory of a Post-Exilic Period: The last named scholar, holding the book to be a compendium of late Jewish eschatology, places it in the year B. When, however, Joel in i. Finally, the mention of the Egyptians points to the last years of Josiah or else those immediately following , referring to Josiah's campaign against the Egyptians. Preuss, Die Prophetie Joels, ; H. Why is Menasseh missing? Old Testament, , and Homer Heater, Jr. The references to the temple in 1: Reasons for the Time of Joash. The king is not the leader of the community, but the elders are which matches a postexilic period cf. When the swarms of locusts are called "northern" in ii. The type of government described in the prophecy the rule of elders [1: The most poignant and disrespectful thing a prophet can do to a wayward king is to completely ignore his existence. The decades around BC, during the Persian period making him one of the latest writing prophets Evidence produced for these positions are allusions in the book to the wider world, similarities with other prophets, and linguistic details.
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